Dr Barnes Homepage http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk

What is the Hum? 

The characteristics  of the Hum  are often associated with LFN (Low frequency noise)  and/or infrasound.    In all probably  the Hum may NOT have a single world-wide cause and most cases may simply  be down to LFN + infrasound where the  source(s)  has/have  not been  readily locatable.   


The Hum is a term given to an unusual  noise usually heard nocturnally and  especially indoors by an estimate of between 2-11% of the World’s population.   Descriptions of the Hum vary considerably from a sensation of pressure, pulsation or popping to that of a large bee tapped in a bottle.  Common denominators seem to be its quasi-periodicity, its estimated base frequency always below 100 Hz and its pulse repetition rate between about .3 and 5 Hz.     Even in locations where the Hum is heard, rarely do  two or more people seem to hear the same noise.   This is suggestive of cochlear non-linearity being requisite in Hum Perception.      In most of  the experiments  I have conducted  the Hum seems to be maximised when there is both infrasound and at least two narrowband LFN frequencies below about 300 Hz present  which satisfy the various cochlear  non-linear mixing equations  2f1 -f2   and  3 f1-f2 etc.  to within a few Hz  and especially  when there are mixes of continuous and pulsating amplitudes.     An additional scenario is room resonance.  If frequencies f1 and f2 correspond  with room resonance modes a much stronger Hum will be experienced.  Plus large rooms often have  higher order axial and tangential modes  which fall close to each other and this can accentuate flutter and pulsation as temperature and pressure change.


In cases where Hums have not been traceable, this had led some to suggest that maybe the Hum is a single Worldwide Phenomenon.  I would suggest that more than likely, however, the Hum is a collection of phenomena with some common denominators.    Moreover, I would suggest that the Hum is experienced when LFN and Infrasound from one or more than one source arrive through multi-path propagation  into buildings.   Brick buildings, especially those made of brick with a high iron content appear to be piezo amplifiers  of the Hum.   There are proportionately more reports of the Hum from brick buildings.        Thus, I would also suggest that as a phenomenon the Hum is a mix of the Anthropogenic and the Preternatural as the latter will alter its propagation.   In my work on the Hum, I also show that a few  human beings, in addition to being sensitive to LFN/Infrasound are also sensitive to changing low level magnetic fields at similar frequencies.   Thus, the  phenomenon in some special cases being vastly reinforced if any of the frequencies in the said LFN or infrasound  are numerically related as fundamentals, harmonics or sub-harmonics or flicker of power systems source or sinks.  Thus, in some cases, the Hum appears to be  far more than just a simple noise and to fully account for all hearer's perception of this enigmatic phenomenon complex biological, geophysical, quantum electromagnetic and even space physics processes may need to be invoked.     


Clues as to the  origin  of the Hum or its sources may be gained from a study of the History of its prevalence.       


The Hum as an enigmatic phenomenon, as gauged by press reports,    seems to have a history  traceable to the early 1970’s in the UK and to the early 1990’s in the USA.  Infrastructure which changed in both countries at about this time was the inception and expansion of High-Pressure Gas Mains and delivery. 

The Hum is now reported  as almost a World-wide phenomenon which, due to its growth, strongly suggests it  to be  anthropogenic or infrastructure related.  

Although Gas Mains probably contribute some components of the Hum in some countries, especially the USA,  one cannot escape the observation that when the latest Geographic distribution of prominent World Hums is considered it most closely correlates with the use of renewable energy systems, particularly wind turbines and hydro-plants   with Francis Turbines and PME Earthing  systems.  Wind turbine infrasound is a strong modern contender for the excitation of secondary LFN effects both in houses and throughout the electricity industry.   More significantly some wind turbines as with hydropower supply long distance narrowband seismic vibrations even when the blades are not turning. Phase imbalanced electrical systems  and vibrations from Electricity Sub-Stations may also contribute to the Hum.    To re-iterate there are virtually no reported cases of the Hum from countries and areas of the World which use TT electrical earthing systems.

Some of my work  also establishes an exciting link between Hum and climate/weather forecasting. This relates to preternatural propagation mechanisms of the Hum outlined above. See  http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Forecast.html




For a more advanced view of the Hum,  my latest 2021 publication on the Hum is found here:     http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/super.htm

A further 58 publications on the Hum are to be found below: 

Academic collaborators welcomed.   I am also available as a 'Hum' investigator and expert witness.


International publications on the Hum:

Chris Barnes Letter to the Editor, The Hum: An anomalous sound around the world, Journal of Scientific   Exploration, Vol. 21, No.4 , pp 754-755, 2007.


 Internet publications on the Hum:

1.  ‘The Hum in Britain a Geographic Study leading to a New Causal Hypothesis of both UHF/Microwave and low frequency Magnetic Involvement’, originally submitted to JSE February 2007, now an Internet Publication, C.Barnes. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMGEOG.htm



2.       ‘Taos type HUMS complex electro-acoustic phenomena with many manifestations’ April 2007    and ‘Humans as electromagnetically enhanced Infrasound Detectors’ A collection of Scientific Works and Comments on the HUM’, Chris Barnes,  June 2009,  Chris Barnes Internet Publication http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUM.htm


3.      ‘Active Prediction of Sites Prone to the HUM by Aharonov- Bohm   Criterion’,CHRIS BARNES, Bangor Scientific Consultants, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, United Kingdom, find at   http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMPRED.htm


4.      ‘The Hum Questions and Answers’, a short Internet Publication, C.Barnes,June2009        http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/TheHumQuestionsandAnswers.htm


5.      ‘Anomalous case of hearing low frequency noise (The Hum) in a motor vehicle some short     comments’, Dr C. Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants.  scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk, find paper at  http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMCAR.htm


6.      ‘Presenting a new hypothesis for the mechanism of perception of the low frequency noise phenomenon known as the Hum, C. Barnes, http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMHYP.htm


7.      ‘Walls have ears but could they have mouths as well? An alternative to the thermo-elastic model of microwave hearing allows for human hearing of a.m. and f.m. as well as pulse signals’ C. Barnes. Double glazed houses, hearing, harmonics and all night pubs and clubs a –coming; completing the jigsaw on a low frequency noise called ‘humming’’ C. Barnes, February 2011, find at http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMHOUSE.htm


8.      HUM vertical component, C.Barnes, February 2011. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMVERT.htm


9.      ‘Solving a case of the HUM’, C. Barnes, http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/BANGORhum.htm


10.  Two Hums; one sufferer’s evidence, C. Barnes, http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/TwoHums.htm


11.  ‘Some short comments on a particular case of the Hum and room resonance’ By Dr C. Barnes, February 2011, http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMROOM.htm


12.  ‘Now you hear me, now you don’t; Dielectric resonance enhanced thermo-acoustic microwave hearing’  http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMDIELRES.htm


13.  ‘Low Frequency Magnetic Studies of Hums in Wales, UK personal observations and first hand anecdotal experience dependence on time evolution of frequency spectrum in the range 0-250 Hz’. By Dr C. Barnes August 2011. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/WALMAG.htm


14.  ‘Accounting for the Bangor Hum and can there be any useful generalisations made which would assist Hum studies Countrywide’. Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants, August 2011http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/DINORWIG.htm


15.  Presenting a utility by utility acoustic spectral study employing a computer based spectrum analysis program with waterfall output, is the Bangor and surrounding area’s Hum all electric? http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/UTILITY.htm


16.  ‘The Hum, the sound of silence – almost.’ By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants. Scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Silence.htm


17.  The Hum, a feature of infrastructure, a radical new explanation based on World power grid interactions as to why it was reported in the UK some twenty years before the US; derived from spectral analysis of ground currents, Bangor as an example. By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants. Email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/GROUNDCURRENT.html


18.  ‘The Hum, a consequence of human influence on space weather deduced from personal experience and a link with geomagnetic parameters’ By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/geomag.htm


19.  ‘The Hum intensity in Bangor dependence on electrojet indices from personal observation’ http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/ELECTROJET.htm


20.  Firming up on space weather connections and the magneto-acoustic phenomenon commonly referred to as the Hum, By Dr Chris Barnes, published Nov 29th 2011. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMIMF.html


21.  Is the Hum due to an anthropogenic source? A five year day by day study, By Dr C. Barnes November 30th 2011 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMMONSUN.html


22.  The Hum is a World –wide expanding problem more than just ‘over sensitive’ hearing.  Can we explain the ‘oversensitive’ bit? By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants. E-MAIL     scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk  Published December 2nd 2011 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMSENSE.htm


23.  The Hum more than just a noise, by Dr C. Barnes, scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk     http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMSPECIALNOISE.htm


24.  TCAMO revisited, not radio frequency radiation but why TACAMO aircraft could have been involved in some early cases of the Hum by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants, first published without reference list March 2012. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Humddr.htm


25.  Estimating the acoustic power of World sources for the Hum by Dr C. Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants by Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants 24th March 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Humpower.htm


26.  Three Hums, the last link in the chain, tying yours down! Firsthand experiences combined with anecdotal clues have lead to scientific measurement. Most modern Hums are type 3 i.e. electricity transmission network related. By Dr C. Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants. Email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMTYPE3.htm


27.  The Hum type 3 a feature of the shifting scene of electricity generation and distribution, convincing the sceptics. By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMNUKEGEN.htm


28.  The Hum, Hummers and the earthquake connection, by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants, e-mail scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk June 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMEQ2.htm


29.  Disclosing a three field study of the Bangor Hum and how a power grid can modulate local gravity? By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor June 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUM3FIELD.htm


30.  Transistor Radio as an aid to the Hum type detection by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Consultants July 2012, http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Transistor.htm


31.  What is the Hum and why is it so random and geo-sporadic? By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMNATURE.htm August 2012


32.  The cause of the Hum, very strong support is presented for a magneto-acoustic theory of both generation and perception by comparing anecdotal reports from subjects seeking relief in caves and mines. By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific and Educational Enterprises email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMCAVE.htm


33.  The Cause and Perception of the Hum overwhelming support for a magnetic hypothesis by Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific and Educational Enterprises email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMMAGPROOF.htm


34. The Hum, TCAMO full circle, power systems and do we really need space physics interactions for all cases. By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Enterprises 3 Email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk Web www.drchrisbarnes.co.ukReleased into public domain 18th August 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMLOCALLV.htm


35 The Bangor Hum Influence of Wind Speed and Direction on Subjectively Perceived Levels by Dr C. Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants November 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Humwind.htm


36. The Hum and Pollution by Dr Chris Barnes , Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, November 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/humpoll.htm


37. The Hum and Body Temperature by Dr Chris Barnes , Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, November 2012 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMTEMP.htm


38. The Hum and Hum like effects; a Unifying Magneto-Acoustic Theory with Fully explainable example Scenarios. By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, December 12th 2012. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMUNIFY.htm


39. The Hum geographic proof of an almost World-wide phenomenon linked to renewable energy (power) systems, by Dr Chris Barnes – Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMGRIDNEW.htm First published without references on Internet on Sunday January 13th 2013.


40. The Hum models for generation of and perception of an LFN noise nuisance with intriguing properties, a facet of renewable energy systems and their connection with the power grid at both local and more distant points , by Dr Chris Barnes Manager at Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants E-mail scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk Published on-line Tuesday 15th January 2013 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMGRIDEFO.htm


 41. A special case of LFN (Low frequency Noise) called the Hum: gas, electric and magnetic modern day living bits all with scientific proof and none of which can be    denied, by Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific Consultants email scienceconsultants@yahoo.co.uk Released for first Internet Publication 19th January 2013 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMLITTLEGEM.htm


      42. Smart Grids a new vehicle for rural and urban LFN nuisance or the Hum and its acoustic component, is there a simple way Smart Grids can maximise this? Released for Internet Publication 16th February 2013. Find paper at http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/SMARTHUM.htm


      43. A case of the Hum being a tale of two sub-stations. First published online 29th April 2013 by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants. Find paper at   http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/TWOSUBS.htm  


      44. Chimneys, toilets and turbines: do electrical power systems always have to be the cause of the Hum or can they just show us Symptoms?  By Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Chimneys.htm



      45. One facet of the Hum is Pumped Storage Hydropower, the Francis Turbine a common denominator connecting the UK and Italy,  first published online 29th June 2013   http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Italy.htm


    46. The Hum now also a Chinese Phenomenon by Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants  http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Chinahum.htm



47. The Moon: Predictor of the Hum by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, e-mail doctor.barnes@univ.bangor.ac.uk   November 2013   Released November 11th 2013  http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/MOON2.html


48. The Hum and Monthly Temperature Anomaly in Wales by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, e-mail doctor.barnes@univ.bangor.ac.uk  November 2013 http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/WXHUM.HTML



49.  The Hum as a medium range weather forecaster in the guise of a forward predictor of local geographic temperature by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Forecast.html email doctor.barnes@univ.bangor.ac.uk


50.A further short comment on the Hum, truly a multi-infrastructure problem, water not off the hook! By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, November 2013. By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific Educational Consultants, November 2013. e-mail doctor.barnes@univ.bangor.ac.ukhttp://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Waterhum.html


51. Wind farms with OAM, the major source, amongst renewables, of the contemporary world LFN phenomenon known as the Hum? By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, e-mail doctor.barnes@yahoo.co.uk. First published on Internet 06/05/2014. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/OAM.htm


52. A loudspeaker from the Underworld,  Local Active corrosion protection:  a possible feature in Britain’s Low Frequency Noise (LFN) Phenomenon more commonly known as the Hum by Dr Chris Barnes, Manager at Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants,  November 2015.  E-mail manager@bsec-wales.c.uk   http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/CP1.htm


53. Types of low voltage (LV) electricity distribution and earth connection and how their evolution may have critically influenced the prevalence of the disturbing low frequency noise phenomenon (LFN) known as the Hum, or  Forty-five years on and do are we any closer to the real cause of the Hum?  by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, Bangor, Wales, UK e-mail manager@bsec-wales.co.uk    http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/LV1.htm

  November 2015


 54. Completing the Jigsaw : How mains earthing (grounding)  systems  and the latest brain and hearing research yields up the final secret of the Hum as a whole  electro-magneto-acoustic phenomenon   rather than just simple LFN. By Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, LL57 2TW. E-mail manager@bsec-wales.co.uk

http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/JIG01.htm November 2015


 55. LFN Phenomena, including the Hum and  increasing prevalence of Cancer: is there  or could there be a connection?  By Dr Chris Barnes Manager at Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, Bangor, Gwynedd,  Wales, UK, LL 57 2TW.    http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/HUMCA01.htm

 E-mail  manager@bsec-wales.co.uk    First released into public domain 1st December 2015.


 56. Bangor, Gwynedd a Humming Paradox OR ‘If the LFN phenomenon the world over known as the Hum is associated with renewable energy, especially wind power, why in Bangor does  it appear to maximise when total UK wind energy output troughs but does not cease?’ By Dr Chris Barnes, manager Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants e-mail manager@bsec-wales.co.uk      First published without full reference list February 2016.   http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/INT01.htm


 57. Picking up bad vibrations: Hydro-power and Wind power common seismic bed partners  in the   newly explained phenomenon known as the Hum, by Dr Chris Barnes Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants.   E-mail manager@bsec-wales.co.uk      First released into public Domain   without full reference list in the interests of advancement of science and human peace of mind :  25th November 2016   http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk/Picking up bad vibrations.htm