A new theory of sleep:  round the world  to meet ourselves,  off  to the moon and  a few ‘mind melds’ with strangers thrown in, by Dr Chris Barnes, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants  e-mail manager@bsec-wales.co.uk    April 2016.


Homepage for all my other types of research http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk



Some present theories of sleep and brain waves are summarised. Then this paper discusses the relationship between observed brain wave frequencies at the various stages of sleep  in relation to the earth – moon distance and  the earth-ionosphere cavity.  When sleep is initiated brain frequencies first fall into a range  where synchronisation with the first Schuman resonance could occur.  Essentially we meet exclusively ourselves in a round the world trip the earth ionosphere cavity.  Soon after deep sleep is achieved with highly coherent brain frequencies of the order of the pulse beat and/or its sub-harmonics.  A suitably resonant  cavity for maintaining  such coherence is the earth –moon distance.    The dream state ( REM) has been described as a paradox  because brain wave frequencies the same or similar to those observed in wakefulness occur.  It is suggested  here that such frequencies could be  triggered by coupling with inputs  of either magnetic PC1 origin and/or  at higher order modes of Schumann resonance either of random nature or by a sort of ‘mind meld’ mechanism from  awake or sleeping  individuals at appropriate distances  operating on the same wavelength.   In conclusion a   new hypothesis has been presented with three fundamental elements to explain:

a)            self-focus to the exclusions of external stimulus other than the 1st SR mode to facilitate entry into sleep  

b)            use of the earth –moon cavity and /or PC1 magnetic pulsations to optimise Delta deep sleep brain functionality

c)             use of SR modes/ PC1 pulsations and mind melding during various REM and Dream phases.     


The only other known researchers to have made references in this area are Cherry and Persinger yet there is, as I will show  a considerable body of evidence to support my ideas.   




Krueger and Obal (1993)  propose a  of sleep function within the context of the neuronal group selection hypothesis, which emphasizes that neuronal groups compete for neurons via use-dependent synaptic formation and atrophy.  Interestingly and in line with the new hypothesis proposed here,  they conclude that sleep is ‘quantal’ in nature in that sleep is a statistical property of a population of neuronal groups in different states. Their theory unifies past theories of sleep function yet simultaneously provides a fundamental new paradigm for sleep research.


Reimund (1994) proposes a  theory of sleep which cerebral free radicals accumulate during wakefulness and are removed during sleep. Removal of excess free radicals during sleep is accomplished by decreased rate of formation of free radicals, and increased efficiency of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. Thus, sleep functions essentially as an antioxidant for the brain.


Rebeirio (2004) highlight the importance of both deep and REM sleep in memory consolidation.  

Muzur (2005)  also discusses memory improvement directly related to  REM sleep.



Brainwave plots  associated with the process of falling asleep were first obtained by Davis et al 1937.   Cantero (2002) has confirmed the appearance of alpha frequencies in the ‘drowsiness’ period.  I affirm that the drowsiness period would seem essential to sleep and explain below.      It is known that infrasound at certain frequencies suppresses alpha brain waves and this could account for the serious annoyance of the magneto-infrasonic phenomenon known as the Hum which I discuss in multiple places elsewhere  (refs).   





It can be seen that as light sleep commences the alpha wave amplitude reduces and its frequency falls rapidly to about 7-8 Hz. Once asleep the amplitude of the delta waves rises dramatically and it frequency falls to less than .5 Hz.


Basar et al (1997)    show that (1) Spontaneous alpha activity is not pure noise as shown by methods of chaos analysis. (2) Evoked alpha oscillations patterns (precisely time-locked to a stimulus; duration approx. 200–300 ms) depend on the modality of stimulation and the recording site.


Rutishauser et al (2010) show that human memory strength is predicted by theta-frequency phase-locking of single neurons in the frequency range 3-8 Hz.


Ganz et al (2009) propose that  dynamics of complex systems is characterized by oscillatory components on many time scales. To study the interactions between these components we analyse the cross modulation of their instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies, separating synchronous and antisynchronous modulation. This seems so of brain-wave oscillations in the human electroencephalogram and thus  interactions between the α wave and the δ or β wave oscillators as well as spatial interactions can be quantified and related with physiological conditions (e.g., sleep stages).


The human brain is a biological organ. On one hand it is soft, flexible and adaptive, but on the other hand is relatively stable and coherent with well-developed intelligence. In order to retain intelligent thinking in a soft and adaptive organ there needs to be a constant, globally available, synchronization system that continuously stabilizes the brain. Rapid intelligence and reactions requires and electromagnetic signalling system, supported by a biochemical system.  Cherry  (2003) was first to propose that the  Schumann Resonance signal provides a brain frequency range matching electromagnetic signal, providing the synchronization needed for intelligence.


Persinger (2014) has also suggested that Schumann  resonance is important in light sleep since its frequencies and magnetic field strengths are highly matched and comparable with   emissions from the human brain.   Indeed, Persinger and Levelle (2010) discussed  quantum entanglement, consciousness and the notion for memory storage outside the biological brain.   


Fraser Smith  (1975) remarks on the first Schumann Resonance peak in which   doublet structure was observed on 7 days in the 2-month measurement interval.


Beck (1986) has showed  that ELF magnetic fields in the range 3-20 Hz can cause mood modification in up to 75% of individuals.


Galejs (1965) first discussed the notion of day /night shifts in the SR modes.          Generally speaking frequencies  of the first two modes increase at night-time and the magnetic field strength decreases by one to two orders of magnitude with the largest changes around  sunset and  sun-rise.   The situation is in reality more complicated because of polarisation changes.


Critically important, and in a sense, perfectly in line with Basar’s (1997) suggestion on the non-randomness,  Persinger  and Saroka (2015) has shown  that Spectral Power Densities (SPD) within the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEGs) Profiles of 41 men and women displayed repeated  real –time transient coherence with the first three modes (7 - 8 Hz, 13 - 14 Hz, and 19 - 20 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance in real time. The duration of the coherence was about 300 ms about twice per min. Topographical map clusters indicated that the domain of maximum coherence was within the right caudal hemisphere near the Para hippocampal gyrus. These clusters, associated with shifts of about 2 μV, became stable about 35 to 45 ms after the onset of the synchronizing event. During the first 10 to 20 ms, the isoelectric lines shifted from clockwise to counter clockwise rotation.


Further, they suggest that natural and technology-based variables affecting the Schumann parameters might be reflected in human brain activity, including modifications of cognition and dream-related memory consolidation.  Rito et al (2000) showed   that  digital radiotelephone handsets affects brain physiology. Healthy, young male subjects were exposed for 30 min to EMF (900 MHz; spatial peak specific absorption rate 1 W/kg) during the waking period preceding sleep. Compared with the control condition with sham exposure, spectral power of the EEG in non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased. The maximum rise occurred in the 9.75–11.25 Hz and 12.5–13.25 Hz band during the initial part of sleep. Thus the changes of brain function induced by pulsed high-frequency EMF outlast the exposure period.


Subjectively, the dream state is particularly fascinating, especially lucid dreaming wherein the dreamer appears to have a certain degree of control over the dream.  It has been suggested that both NREM ( deep sleep) and REM sleep are connected with the consolidation of memory.      In the dream state events of the previous day often seem to be ‘played back’ to the dreamer albeit in a very hap hazard and scrambled manner.  Sometimes scenes from the dreamer’s past appear. Sometimes wish fulfilment occurs.  Sometimes problems are solved either directly or by abstract means.  There is evidence to support this, see for example Nikles II et al (1998).    But what of dreams where the dreamer finds themselves in places they have never been before or have not even viewed on TV or the Internet?  What of dreams where the dreamer sees the vivid faces  and in some cases whole bodies of people they have never met before or even becomes intimate with such people?         These  types of experiences are far more difficult to square as ‘simple consolidation of memory’.   They are almost in the realm of  past lives’ and the sorts of experiences described and spoken out under the type of hypnosis commonly referred to as post hypnotic regression .     


Following this brief review and introduction to sleep hypotheses and the like  I will now further develop my theory. 



New theory Part 1 : Round the world to meet ourselves


I hypothesise that in order to enter light sleep the amplitude and frequency of one alpha brain waves must synchronise with the first Schuman resonance.   The bandwidth of this resonance in the earth ionosphere cavity  is probably wide enough to accommodate variations in individual sleepers.   When we start to drift asleep the ‘focus’ and floating into nothingness or into pleasant random scenes is most likely achieved by effectively round the world travel of our ELF brain waves phase locking at approximately 8 Hz with the first Schuman resonance. In a sense since the bio-field quanta we generate track this loop than metaphorically since these are an extension of ourselves than so do we.   I further propose that synchronisation   in this way allows  us ( the brain)  to focus on self or nothingness or Gaia  to the exclusion of all  else and hence allow the shutting down of the ….. system. 


Support for the hypothesis comes from  personal experience  that, even in a room equipped with black-out curtains  it is much harder to get to sleep during the day than at night.     The mean duration day sleep in shift workers is some 56% of the night duration, see Knauth et al (1980).       In extension of my hypothesis I propose this is wholly or partially because the intensity (pT) of the first SR mode is too strong for proper sleep during the day time, see also Ganz.


New theory Part 2 :  off  to the moon (and back)


Once asleep a brief period of phase locking with the second SR mode at approximately 14            Hz would seem to occur.    It has been proposed that the periods between NREM and REM sleep are controlled by a sort of bio- flip –flop circuit ( refs) which may have stable and meta-stable states.   This brief locking in the region of 14 Hz may be an example of the latter. 


However, in order  to stay deeply asleep all alpha frequencies must cease and delta phase locking must occur.   I propose that the most convenient cavity for such electromagnetic phase locking is the earth-moon distance.   The average of such being 370,300 km.   This length (as an electromagnetic wavelength  corresponds to a frequency of .81 Hz).  Slow oscillations are electrical potential oscillations with a spectral peak frequency of 0.8 Hz, and hallmark the electroencephalogram during slow-wave sleep, see Ngo et al (2013).  This is also perfectly in line with the data supplied by Davis et al, who noted highly coherent and increasing amplitude brain waves    in this frequency band.   This frequency range is also coincident with the band in which PC1 geomagnetic pulsations occur, see for example but not exclusively, Feygin   et al (2000).

  Belova and Acostas Avos (2015) have discussed absorption of these frequencies by biological systems in general.   I have previously discussed a psycho –acoustic phenomenon known as the Hum which seems to manifest most when there are abnormally high  and narrow band frequencies of 1.7 -5 Hz and even on occasions 17Hz present in the PC1 spectra   recorded at Kiruna and Gakona. http://www.drchrisbarnes.co.uk/geomag.htm. 


 New theory Part 3 :  The dream state  ‘a few ‘mind melds’ with strangers thrown in’.   


In the dream state high frequency brain waves such as alpha and beta are present and even frequencies of between 30-40 Hz.  I propose synchronisation at these frequencies either with higher order SR modes or directly with other individuals very nearby individuals or with individuals  elsewhere  on the planet at relevant wavelength or sub-wavelength  related distances.    I hypothesise that such synchronisation or phase locking may effectively allow ‘mind     melds with friends or strangers either very nearby or at a considerable distance.   Because this is a radical idea I will now examine the surprisingly  considerable body of  supporting evidence. 


Llinas and Ribary (1993) have shown that magnetic recording from five normal human adults demonstrates large 40-Hz coherent magnetic activity in the awake and in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep states that is very reduced during delta sleep (deep sleep characterized by delta waves in the electroencephalogram). This 40-Hz magnetic oscillation has been shown to be reset by sensory stimuli in the awake state. Such resetting is not observed during REM or delta sleep. The 40 Hz in REM sleep is characterized, as is that in the awake state, by a fronto-occipital phase shift over the head. This phase shift has a maximum duration of approximately 12-13 msec. Because 40-Hz oscillation is seen in both wakefulness and in dreaming, they  propose it to be a correlate of cognition, probably resultant from coherent 40-Hz resonance between thalamocortical-specific and nonspecific loops. Moreover, they  proposed that the specific loops give the content of cognition, and a nonspecific loop gives the temporal binding required for the unity of cognitive experience.


But what of the possibility of external phase locking of this 40 Hz signal?  The possibilities then become almost endless. For example, Grandpierre     ( 1996)  and on-line (2010) has discussed the physics of collective consciousness.   Orme –Johnson et al (2009)  have measured EEG coherence was measured between pairs of three different subjects during a one-hour period practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Coherence between subjects was evaluated for two sequential fifteen minute periods. on six experimental days, these periods preceded and then coincided with a fifteen minute period during which 2500 students participated in the TM-Sidhi program at a course over 1000 miles away. After the course had ended coherence was evaluated on six control days.


It was found that intersubject coherence was generally low, between 0.35 and 0.4, with coherence in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and beta (16–20 Hz) frequencies significantly higher than at other frequencies. on the experimental days, intersubject EEG coherence increased during the experimental period relative to the fifteen minute baseline period immediately preceding the experimental period. Coherence increased significantly from baseline to experimental periods on experimental days compared with control days (p = 0.02). This effect was particularly evident in the alpha and beta frequencies. Their  results  also reinforce previous sociological studies showing decreased social disorder in the vicinity of TM and TM-Sidhi participants and are discussed in terms of a field theoretic view of consciousness.   Recent data indicate that some cortical rhythms  in this frequency range can be related to periodic activity of peripheral sensor and effector organs, see  Hari and Salmelin (1997).     Sleep EEG alterations occur with different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields, see Scmid et al (2010).  One presumes if this happens, perhaps dream content could be influenced. 


At what sorts of distances might ‘mind melds’ be possible?    40  Hz corresponds with an electromagnetic wavelength of about 7,500 Km.   The ideal near-field propagation distance with a voltage node at each end is half a wavelength or 3,750 Km.   So we would expect most dream state ‘mind-melds’ to happen over this type of radius, if indeed they were to happen at all. Certainly, from the work of      Llinas and Ribary  transient ‘mind- melding’ is to be expected. 


An added complication is that Theta  (4-8 Hz) waves and Gamma Coordination of Hippocampal Networks also occurs during  Rapid Eye Movement Sleep,   see Montgomery et al (2008).   Mind melding in the Theta range could take place via the Schuman Earth    Ionosphere cavity at virtually any place on the globe.  Alternatively that   waves    could phase lock with the first SR mode or with bursts of PC1 magnetic pulsations.


Regarding the latter, what is certain is that Space Weather has been shown to dramatically influence human physiology, see Dzvonik et al (2006).   Whose  research deals with longitudinal empirical monitoring of the possible effects of a space weather on the psycho-physiological, physiological and biochemical parameters measured in aviation personnel. Comparing heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the seasons of the high and low solar activities (SolFlux), they found  statically relevant differences. Similar  differences  were also found between the MAST (Anxiety State and Tension Scale) parameters and R (number of sun spots) and SolFlux (radio solar flux), respectively.  The TDS (test of ability to differentiate cues) as well as the PAMATB (memory performance test) had significantly higher values for high speed of hot and sparse plasma of the solar wind. TDS also correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with R. K-test (visual coordination test).


If such ‘mind –melding  and/or geomagnetic influence is indeed possible and as the above would suggest only to be transient, this would explain why unknown strangers only fleeting visit our dreams and we cannot always find them again.   I extend the hypothesis by suggesting that they must be on exactly the right wavelength and in the right place at the right time and yet such melds may be with other dreamers or even the waking.   It is  hypothesized by others   ( Wehrle et al 2007) as a result of using fMRI that  REM sleep can  be subdivided into tonic REM sleep with residual alertness, and phasic REM sleep with the brain acting as a functionally isolated and closed intrinsic loop.  I would propose that it is during this apparent later ‘loop’ that electromagnetic phase locking at a distance could occur.  


In a similar and not entirely unrelated vain, Karim (2010) has tested transcranial cortex stimulation as a novel approach for probing the neurobiology of dreams which has both clinical and neuroethical implications.   He has suggested this technique could possibly  overcome the correlative limitations of neuroimaging techniques by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during different sleep stages in order to provide causal evidence for the role of specific brain regions in different dream contents, (ii) to control for possible perceptual and cognitive biases in dream reports such as hindsight bias, (iii) to combine computer assisted qualitative data analyses of dream reports with quantitative psychometric scales by applying logistic regression analyses and (iv) to consider possible implications for psychotherapy and neuroethics.   Thut (2014)  was able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres again by  transcranial electrical current stimulation.


Sandyk (1997) found that treatment with Weak Electromagnetic  (pT) Fields Restored Dream Recall in a Parkinsonian Patient.


Sleep spindles in general and their modification have been discussed by  Derk-Jan Dijk (2012)   who concludes that enhancing spindle activity or SWA may be one avenue by which to alter and maybe improve the effects of sleep on brain function. Changes in SWA and spindle activity can be accomplished by pharmacological means, e.g. hypnotics (Walsh, 2009), transcranial magnetic stimulation (Marshall et al., 2006), rhythmic acoustic stimulation (Ngo et al., 2012) and exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields such as employed by mobile phones (Schmid et al., 2012a). In the current issue, Schmid and colleagues present more data to demonstrate that exposure to these fields for 30 min prior to sleep can indeed significantly enhance EEG activity in NREM sleep and that sleep spindle activity is particularly enhanced (Schmid et al., 2012b). These EEG changes were observed in the absence of changes in sleep structure. One may now wonder to what extent declarative and procedural memory will be affected across all those manipulations which can enhance sleep spindle and delta activity?


Clearly over history  waking ‘melds’ between people who are emotionally close have long been reported.   There is  also of course the  long held maxim  ‘great minds think alike  but fools seldom differ’ as an anecdotal element in support.


Reverting to the opening proposal in this part of my hypothesis I suggest that synchronisation can be with either SR modes or with other individuals.   Lipnicki (2009) has investigated an association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness using a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum 6 or 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1–5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n = 69, median bizarreness = 4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n = 85, median bizarreness = 3; p = 0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness.   Kulak et al (2003) show that observations of resonant electromagnetic fields caused by global lightning activity are employed in determining the averaged  Schumann resonance parameters of the lower ionosphere. Using the two-dimensional telegraph equation (TDTE) transmission line model described by Kuequation imageak et al. [2003], we have computed the attenuation rate of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide from diurnal observations of the N-S magnetic component of the ELF field performed irregularly for 6 years in the East Carpathian mountains. As the measurements were carried out during both the minimum and the maximum of the solar cycle 23 we present how solar activity influence the first Schumann resonance frequency and the attenuation rate. The analysis of all the data indicates that the first Schumann resonance frequency increases from 7.75 Hz at solar minimum to about 7.95 Hz at solar maximum while the global mean attenuation rate α at 8 Hz varies from 0.31 dB/Mm at minimum to about 0.26 dB/Mm at maximum.  Clearly subtle changes in frequency and field strength may be enough to influence  dream    bizarreness.   I hypothesise that a  weaker Schuman resonance may allow more fleeting couplings with the minds of other individuals thereby increasing dream ‘bizarreness’.     


One day in the future, it may become possible using combined techniques of   fRMI and EEG to directly image thoughts and then we will know for sure!     A key challenge for cognitive neuroscience is determining how mental representations map onto patterns of neural activity. Recently, researchers have started to address this question by applying sophisticated pattern-classification algorithms to distributed (multi-voxel) patterns of functional MRI data, with the goal of decoding the information that is represented in the subject's brain at a particular point in time. This multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) approach has led to several impressive feats of mind reading, see for example Norman et al (2006).  More importantly, MVPA methods might constitute a useful new tool for advancing our understanding of neural information processing. We review how researchers are using MVPA methods to characterize neural coding and information processing in domains ranging from visual perception to memory search.




A  new hypothesis has been presented with three fundamental elements to explain:

a)      self-focus to the exclusions of external stimulus other than the 1st SR mode to facilitate entry into sleep  

b)     use of the earth –moon cavity and /or PC1 magnetic pulsations to optimise Delta deep sleep brain functionality

c)      use of SR modes/ PC1 pulsations and mind melding during various REM and  Dream phases.     


The only other known researchers to have made references in this area are Cherry and Persinger yet there is, as I hope I have shown above a considerable body of evidence to support my ideas.   




Will be listed comprehensively when I have more time.


Released to internet for        Beta publication April 2016.

Copyright Dr Chris Barnes.

Homepage http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk