How age standardised rates and geographic considerations of living in the 50Hz or 60 Hz world both informs cancer biology and opens up the possibility of new non-invasive, drug-free treatments by Dr Chris Barnes BSEC-Wales, Bangor UK, LL57 2TW.  First Published online 12th  January 2024.  Without full reference list.    Revised 7th February 2024.



The hypothesis  proposes that there should be marked differences between the ASR/GMF distributions for every known common cancer in parts of the world which employ 50 Hz electricity mains frequency  as opposed to those which use  60 Hz electricity frequency mains frequency.  ASR incidence rates versus GMF are fitted to appropriate polynomial distributions and analysed in parts of the world which have either 50Hz or 60 Hz electricity supplies. Gross differences are found to exist between these two ‘frequency’ worlds,  suggesting that   electromagnetic fields    from power systems  can influence development and distribution of cancers which is then discussed in terms of the latest ideas of the disease as a channelopathy.  Although several competing hypotheses exist concerning how ion channel transits  are influenced by fields,  including Ion Cyclotron resonance,  Ion Parametric resonance and the biological equivalent of the Hall effect these tend to reduce to a common dependence  per ion on  AC excitation frequency and background DC earth  magnetic field  (GMF)  or Hz/  μT.   Thus, the ICR model, mathematically at least serves to adequately explain the results.    At both maxima and minima in the above distributions specific ions and their channels are involved which either corroborate with or even in some cases further inform existing cancer biology.  The maxima involve ion channels which drive cancer and the minima involve ion channels which suppress cancer as evidenced by multiple references to existing cancer biology.    Moreover, exciting new and simple drug free treatment possibilities are opened up.           




It is well known that age standardised rates of cancer vary from country to country around the globe.     Often incidence rates do not mirror survival rates due to disparate economic considerations.    Some have observed that certain cancers, for example brain cancer appear to follow human development index,  Lee et al 2019 [1].    The present author has noted that internet penetration is also a good indicator  [2].


However, one can also pose the question, ‘are there other reasons for these geographical disparities?’   Biological systems are known to interact with AC and DC magnetic fields [3]  and of course the earth’s static field ( GMF)  varies across the globe.   There are many studies in biology from cellular to whole organism level showing such interactions at so called ion cyclotron resonance frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics.   It should be stressed,, however,  that are some studies and theories which suggest that it is the electric field component of ELF EMFS especially polarised EMFS  which cause bio-effects including frequency and power ‘windowing’ .  The true story is that probably for biological interaction more than one model may be relevant and indeed active simultaneously.   For instance polarised electric fields may increase the probability of ions being found at the mouth of a voltage gated pore whereas frequency tuned magnetic fields may be critical in its selection and ‘steering’ via either cyclotron or parametric resonance processes.   Nevertheless,   following from the purely magnetic  premise, the present author has   previously made the proposition that human life has evolved from region of the world where in general the field strength was the order of 43 micro-Tesla [3]   


At such a value of GMF,  most biological processes involving voltage gated ion channels appear to be ‘protected’ or governed by multiple Schumann resonance  processes in some way.  It was also noted that as the field strength drops to 30 micro Tesla there are only  half as many protected processes and at 55 micro Tesla only 1 protected process.    My guess is cancer rates as a whole ought to be proportional to the number of unprotected processes.   Very approximately this is seen to be the case.



The assumptions of this previous work were made not considering exogenous anthropogenic fields.     It is proposed that because a significant fraction of the world’s population live under the influence of 60 Hz AC fields due to their AC mains electrical supply, a so called ’60 Hz’ world and the other remaining fraction live effectively in a ’50 Hz’ world,  then there ought to be significant differences in cancer ASR on this basis  too.   Moreover, with cancer as a channelopathy  and ion transits depending not only on AC field  and frequency but also DC field ( GMF) there ought to be significant  differences in the entire ASR/GMF distributions  in these distributions  for specific cancers between the two frequency ‘worlds’.      The present study thus seeks to make such an enquiry and confirm the same.  


Three additional  observations  certainly suggest this enquiry to be worthy.   Firstly, the fact that cancer rates amongst the Amish, a religious group who do not use electricity, are up to 40 % lower than in the rest of the world [4].    Secondly, is the fact that electrical workers suffer an increased risk of certain types of cancer [5-7]      Thirdly, there is a strong known association around the world between haematological malignancies and the degree of electrification.   See figure 1 below,  where the map on the left shows access to electricity from red 100% coverage to dark blue 0-20% coverage.     Also, where the map on the right shows total haematological cancer incidences maximum dark blue to minimum white.



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Figure 1:  Comparison of degree of electrification in contemporary world, left,  with age standardised rates of haematological  malignancies, right.  




The study and the datasets. 

The geomagnetic field data was obtained courtesy of the US EPA.

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The ASR incidence cancer data sets were obtained from    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)   ( Globocan 2018 and 2020 datasets).   Also used were BMC Cancer datasets.  BMC is part of the scientific journal ‘Nature’. 


Data  on power frequencies in individual countries of the world was obtained from  [8]


Data on Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequencies for common  biological  ions were obtained from  Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fieldsedited by Ben Greenebaum, Frank S. Barnes in particular the Chapter of the Book written by A.R. Liboff.   Other data was from   [9,10].


Ion cyclotron resonance for specific ions is usually reduced  to unit field and is thus expressed

as Hz/µT.     The author has calculated   resonance frequencies for other  ions of trace elements not all  found in the above lists and these are shown below.       Given the results of typical ICR laboratory experiments it is apparent that  the  Q values of such resonances are often quite low and thus the expectation is that for an ICR of a few tens of Hz  a frequency of say +/-                      5Hz will stimulate a said resonance   and there is the expectation that in some cases there could even be a degree of overlap  between two or more ions simultaneously excited. 





Cancer ASR’s ( incidence)  for specific cancers and locations in the ‘60 Hz’ world were plotted against GMF at 2.5  micro-Tesla intervals at those said locations  and the exercise repeated likewise for the ’50 Hz’ world.      The plots were examined using a sophisticated curve fitting routine wherein best fits were shown to be represented by a fourth order polynomial.  

These polynomial best fits of the data plots were then analysed to locate the positions of their most discernible major and minor  peaks or troughs in ASR as a function of GMF and the GMF values of these peaks and troughs were noted and recorded. 

The relevant peaks and troughs were then analysed for their frequency to field ratio (  Hz/ µT)       being either  50 or 60   divided by the field depending on location and the closest known ion having that same or similar ratio ascribed.      These given frequency field ratios may or may not align with specific biological ions.    In cases where there is no apparent alignment it is then pertinent to enquire if a specific Schuman resonance is providing the said alignment.       Some have suggested that Ion Cyclotron interactions maximise when DC magnetic field  B d.c.  and   AC magnetic field B a.c. are of similar magnitudes.     However, in a practical exposure situation it is unlikely that this will be the case in that the GMF ( D.C. field)  is measured in tens of micro-Tesla and that A.C. mains frequency  fields are usually of the order milli-Tesla whereas Schumann resonance provides minute fields of the order of 10 pT.      Though 7.83 Hz  is considered the fundamental Schumann resonance, other frequencies occur between 6 and 50 cycles per second; specifically 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz, with a daily variation of about +/- 0.5 Hertz (Hz) These frequencies function as a generalised background proposed theoretically by some as influencing the biological circuitry of much of the life on Earth.  There is an increasing body of experimental evidence for this case.    Since mains frequencies and their sub-harmonics are close to some of the Schumann resonance frequencies it is possible to speculate that there could be interplay.  





The distribution functions for   ASR ( age standardised rate)  versus  GMF  having  been fitted to their best 4th order polynomials and are displayed below.    The central frequencies of the relevant  peaks and    troughs  have been isolated   as described above and tabulated with each relevant ion.   




Results Brain Cancer 

Figure 2 shows the ASR/GMF distribution functions for brain cancer in the 50 and 60 Hz worlds.   


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Figure 2



Based solely on a cursory glance at the  areas under each curve, the risks of brain cancer in each ‘world’ appear approximately equal.   A more detailed appraisal yields  a risk some 1.2 times higher in the 50 Hz world.


Table 1 below summarises the peaks and troughs in the incidence distribution and the possible ions involved in each of the ‘frequency worlds’.




TABLE 1 :              BRAIN CANCER 


f/B (50)

ION 50

f/B (60)

ION 60 








Major Peak




1* Cr












5* Arg







Na or .5 Mg









Minor  Peak 





At 50 Hz a single peak  with a f/B ratio of circa 1.0 is observed.  This appears to be either twice the Zn resonance or  five times the arginine resonance.     This is also close to the chromium ICR resonance.   Chromium  is a known human carcinogen.


At 60 Hz  a peak with an f/B ratio of circa .9 is observed.   Again, to within 10% or so the same entities as at 50 Hz appear to be stimulated.        The trough at 36 micro-Tesla appears to give a ratio of f/B = .6 which is close to the Na+ resonance or about .5 of the Mg2+ resonance.    Note also how at this natural minimum for Brain cancer at a GMF strength of some 36 micro-Tesla Schuman Resonance also appears to stimulate the majority of natural biological electrolyte ions except calcium.  


Results Breast Cancer.

Figure 3 shows the ASR/GMF distribution functions for breast cancer in the 50 and 60 Hz worlds.   



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Figure 3


Based on the area under the curves, figure 3, the risk of breast cancer in the 60 Hz world appears to be greater than that in the 50 Hz world by a factor of approximately  1.4.    The relevant ions stimulated either by the power fields or the natural Schuman fields are recorded in table 2 below. 

Results Leukaemia

Figure 4 shows the ASR/GMF distribution functions for breast cancer in the 50 and 60 Hz worlds.   

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Figure 4

From a comparison of areas under  the curves in figure 4,  the risk  of Leukaemia appears to be about 1.7 times greater in the 60 Hz world than the 50 Hz world.     The relevant ions stimulated either by the power fields or the natural Schuman fields are recorded in table 3 below. 




Results NHL


Figure 5 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Non Hodgkin Lymphoma  in the 50 and 60 Hz worlds.   



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Figure 5

From simple ‘area under the curve’ considerations there is slightly more risk (1.2 times) in the 50 Hz world.  


Results Prostate Cancer

Figure 6 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Prostate Cancer in the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds.   


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From simple ‘area under the curve’ considerations there is significantly more risk of prostate cancer in the 60 Hz world (1.6   times),  





Results Myeloma


Figure 7 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Myeloma in the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds.   


Figure 7


From a simple area under the curve approximation, it appears that the odds of having myeloma in the 60 Hz world are some 1.2 times that in the 50 Hz world. 


The 60 Hz curve has a single peak at a GMF of some 56 micro-Tesla and a single trough  at 33 micro-Tesla.     The 50 Hz plot   is more complex  with a single peak at 44 micro-Tesla, a major trough at 26 micro-Tesla and a second trough  in the region of 57 micro-Tesla.  




Results Colorectal Cancer

Figure 8 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Myeloma in the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds.   


Figure 8 



From a simple area under the curve approximation, figure 8, it appears that the odds of having colorectal cancer in  the 60 Hz world are some 1.15 times that in the 50 Hz world. 


The 60 Hz world produces a major peak  in ASR at a GMF of circa 57 micro-Tesla and a minor peak  at 26 micro-Tesla,  with a single trough in the region of 40 micro-Tesla.  


The 50 Hz world produces a single  peak  in ASR at a GMF of circa 50 micro-Tesla and no minor peak  single  very pronounced trough in the region of 27 micro-Tesla.  


Possible ICR reactions   at the said peaks and troughs in  each ‘world’ are shown below in Table 7.





Results Lung Cancer

Figure 9 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Myeloma in the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds.   




Figure 9

Preliminary inspection shows the results for lung cancer to be very different from all the other cancers so far considered.     The form of the ASR to GMF distribution curves are virtually identical in both worlds.    Moreover, a simple area under the curve approximation shows that the odds of having lung cancer in either the 60 Hz world or  the 50 Hz world are also virtually identical.     It is possible this is simply due to an overload in the relative risk factor of smoking which is some 15-30  times and far, far greater than any other known risk factor for any other cancer.    It is possible this risk factor totally outweighs  the electromagnetic risk in the case of lung cancer especially. 

Possible ICR reactions for lung cancer are shown below in Table 8.



Results Ovarian Cancer


Figure 10 shows a comparison of the ASR/GMF distribution functions for Myeloma in the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds.   



Figure 10

A simple area under the curve approximation shows that the odds of having Ovarian  cancer are far higher in the  50 Hz world and some 1.6 times that in the 60 Hz world. 

Table 9 shows the closest possible ion ICR relationships that could potentially be involved.     


Major Peak also  =  3x K





The notion of cancer as a ‘channelopathy’ is becoming more and more accepted in modern biology [11-16].     Some types of voltage gated ion channels are often found in cancerous tissue which are normally only found in excitable tissue [16-25].  


Some of the work in this area of cancer biology is somewhat speculative and often relies on in vitro experimentation and use of channel blockers and other chemical inhibitors, antagonists and agonists to test.     It has been stated that the major  voltage gated ion channels normally found in excitable tissue and their variants carrying  either calcium, sodium, potassium  or chloride may be the most susceptible  to channel altering chemotherapy   drugs.   See Fiske et al (2006). 


The core ideas and theme of the discussion developed herein  is that  changed  ion flows as disturbed by AC magnetic  fields may be either beneficial i.e. acting as the drugs described above or detrimental  by accentuating the action of aberrant channels in such a way as to promote cancer.  


Although there are competing hypotheses for the interaction of ion flows and AC magnetic  fields in biology, a substantial amount of work in the literature prevails concerning ICR.    The vast majority of the studies   suggest that ICR causes almost exclusively calcium ion efflux.    However, there is absolutely nothing whatsoever in ICR theory that suggests that the perturbation of ions  other than Calcium should not be possible.    Moreover,   the present author has shown this to be the case with personal studies  on plant biology. 


If indeed cancer worldwide and more importantly specific cancers and their development and prevalence are indeed influenced by mains frequency fields due to perturbation of ion flows and charge pumps, then the specific ions identified in this study ought also to crop up in contemporary descriptions of the disease biology.    Moreover, where there is discrepancy in hypothesis it is hoped that the current study will further inform cancer biology.    


Although there are competing hypotheses for the interaction of ion flows and AC magnetic  fields in biology, a substantial amount of work in the literature prevails concerning ICR.    The vast majority of the studies   suggest that ICR causes almost exclusively calcium ion efflux.    However, there is absolutely nothing whatsoever in ICR theory that suggests that the perturbation of ions  other than Calcium should not be possible.    Moreover,   the present author has shown this to be the case with personal studies  on plant biology. 





It is convenient to refer to the tables above and deal with each type of cancer sequentially.


Discussion for Brain Cancer


Referring to Table 1, the results indicate that the Zn cation is somehow implicated at the peak of the distribution for both 50Hz and 60 Hz.      There are many, many papers an example of which is Pan et al 2017    [26]  which discuss zinc dysregulation in cancer.    50 HZ and 60 Hz are also frequencies closely related to the 5th ions cyclotron harmonic of arginine at the same peak GMF value in the distribution.     Patil et al has shown that arginine deprivation may cause selective destruction of tumour cells.  Whereas here clearly the converse situation is occurring.    .     The 2*Zn peak is also very close to the chromium ICR resonance.   Chromium is a known human carcinogen. 


However, at 50 Hz  by far the closest ICR is that of the bivalent Molybdenum ion error of only 2%. ICR harmonic x3.    Assuming this ICR causes molybdenum efflux, it is easy to see what an aggravating situation this may be,  given that deficiencies in this micro-nutrient are known to be already very high in brain cancer.     This alone may be sufficient to explain the slightly higher risk in the 50 Hz world.


There is no trough per se because the  very pronounced minima are found at the lowest and highest natural  earth GMF values corresponding to equivalent  frequency /field ratios  of  2.0 and 1.2.   This yields exactly  3x and 2x  Na ICR respectively.       Griffin et al (2020) have shown that  inhibition of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride channels has been shown to reduce the capacity of glioblastoma cells to grow and invade. Therefore, we propose that targeting ion channels and repurposing commercially available ion channel inhibitors may hold the key to new therapeutic avenues in high grade gliomas.   So if Na is in electromagnetically induced efflux this is tantamount to inhibition.   Horne et al   (2021)  discuss Nav 1.7  and sodium channels as a target.   There are many other papers in the literature on similar lines. 


The argument advanced initially and vindicated here is that although some parts of the world are dangerous and enhance one’s risk of brain cancer through adverse ICR interactions at appropriate GMF.  Equally there are other parts of the world which actually dimmish one’s risk by tuning with a differing GMF  to a different ion or ion set.  



Discussion Breast Cancer

The results, table 2, indicate that the magnesium cation is implicated at the peak of the distribution for both 50Hz and 60 Hz. 


Wolf and Trapani (2012)  [18]  discuss magnesium and its transporters   and  the role of magnesium in angiogenesis and metastatization, and focus on the relationship between tumour cell proliferation and metabolic reprogramming, discussing how magnesium and its transporters are involved in these processes.  They  bring together the latest experimental evidence indicating that alteration in the expression and/or activity of magnesium channels is a frequent finding in cancer cells and human tumour tissues examined to date.


Mg level directly influences transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) related Ca influx, calcium–adenosine triphosphatase (Ca–ATP) levels, and cell proliferation, and thereby could lead to cancer,   see Sahmoun and Singh (2010) [19].


The proposal here very supportive of the known cancer biology, is that it is highly likely  that  mains frequency fields are here directly modulating Magnesium Ion flow  via  a process which has frequency  spectra linked to ICR.    Processes of ICR, IPR and a biological equivalent of the Hall effect could all fit this bill.   


Magnesium deficiency is known to lead to breast cancer.  In a simply sense stimulated magnesium efflux by the ICR process could be accentuating this situation for some.


From a precision point of view the ratio observed for the frequency/field ratio  observed for breast cancer UK  maximum  ASR  is with .7%  of the value for the magnesium ion which is very convincing. 


However,  the magnesium ICR frequency is also approximately twice the iron ICR frequency and it is possible this ion could also be  being stimulated.   If indeed iron is also involved, it is pertinent to enquire if there is any relevance to or mention of this ion in breast cancer biology.   Torti and Torti ( 2013) [20]  discuss  Cellular Iron Metabolism in Prognosis and Therapy of Breast Cancer.   They state that Iron metabolism is frequently disrupted in breast cancer, and may offer an opportunity to address these challenges. It seems Iron enhances breast tumour initiation, growth and metastases and that Iron may contribute to breast tumour initiation by promoting redox cycling of oestrogen metabolites. Up-regulation of iron import and down-regulation of iron export may enable breast cancer cells to acquire and retain excess iron. Alterations in iron metabolism in macrophages and other cells of the tumour microenvironment may also foster breast tumour growth. Expression of iron metabolic genes in breast tumours is predictive of breast cancer prognosis.  Finally, they mention the possibility that Iron chelators and other strategies designed to limit iron may have therapeutic value in breast cancer.



The 50 Hz trough in the breast cancer ASR/GMF distribution function appears to be related to calcium ions.   The T -type voltage gated   CaV3.1 isoform has been indicated as a tumour-suppressor gene candidate and is reported to support anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in breast cancer, see Bargava and Saha  (2018) [21].   It is proposed here that  at a GMF of some 37 micro-Tesla,  50  Hz mains fields  may be capable  of stimulating this channel  by one of the ICR like processes outlined above.    At 60 Hz no such similar stimulation exists and as a result the trough is significantly shallower, and the overall cancer risk is higher.


At lower GMF’s still and at 50 Hz there is a lesser peak  seen to be associated with sodium cations.  The Nav1.5 α subunit (encoded by SCN5A) is expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, where it enhances migration and invasion, see Yang et al (2012)  [22].    The proposal is here that   50 Hz and GMF’s in the region of 25 micro-Tesla Nav 1.5 is being enhanced due to ICR or similar processes and hence increasing the cancer risk.    


At 60 Hz the second peak seems to be associated with Lithium ions.  Suganthi et al ( 2012)[23]  have shown that breast cancer cells respond in a diverse manner to LiCl, i.e., at lower concentrations (1, 5, and 10 mM), LiCl induces cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through regulation of GSK-3β, caspase-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-7 and by activating anti-apoptotic proteins (Akt, β-catenin, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1). In contrast, at high concentrations (50 and 100 mM), it induces apoptosis by reversing these effects. 


Somewhat surprisingly, perhaps, the available experimental evidence now appears to be sufficient to accept lithium as  an essential human nutrient ; a provisional RDA for a 70 kg adult of 1000 μg/day is suggested, see Schrauzer (2001) [24].    At these trace amounts any electromagnetic stimulation of lithium channels would perhaps be pro rather than anti-cancer according to the above.     


Discussion Leukaemia


Draper (2005) [25] found that compared with those who lived > 600 m from a power line at birth, children who lived within 200 m had a relative risk of leukaemia of 1.69 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.53); those born between 200 and 600 m had a relative risk of 1.23 (1.02 to 1.49). There was a significant (P < 0.01) trend in risk in relation to the reciprocal of distance from the line. No excess risk in relation to proximity to lines was found for other childhood cancers.


The present results may shed some light on this observation.


As with brain cancer, the results, table 3, indicate that the Zn cation (exactly  2*Zn ICR) is somehow implicated at the major peak of the distribution for both 50Hz and 60 Hz, see Figure 4.    The minor peak at much lower GMF values and 50 Hz also appears to be zinc related.   To re-iterate, there are many, many papers an example of which is Pan et al 2017  [26] which discuss zinc dysregulation in cancer.   

Very contemporary work of Zhu et al (2023) [27]  shows that  zinc homeostasis affects MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways in NB4 cells and hence that zinc plays a critical role in leukaemia cells and helps understanding on how zinc depletion induces apoptosis.    .     The 2*Zn peak  seen here is  also very close to 2* Cl-  ICR  and to the chromium ICR resonance.   Chromium is a known human carcinogen. Mechanisms of the action of chromium are discussed by  Chiu et al (2010) [28]. They summarise the action as follows.   Hexavalent chromium combines with glutathione in chloride intracellular channel carrier to form tetravalent and pentavalent chromium in plasma and organelle membranes. It also combines with NADH/NADPH to form pentavalent chromium in mitochondria. Tetravalent- and pentavalent- chromium (directly and indirectly) mediated DNA double strand breaks activate DNA damage signalling sensors: DNA-dependent-protein-kinase signals p53-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and ataxia-telangiectasia-Rad3-related signal cell-arrest for DNA repair. Tetravalent chromium may be the most potent species since it causes DNA breaks and somatic recombination, but not apoptosis. Upon further failure of apoptosis and senescence/DNA-repair, damaged cells may become immortal with loss-of-heterozygosity and genetic plasticity.



The trough in Leukaemia occurrence at circa 30 micro-Tesla and 50 Hz appears to be magnesium related.  But this is also approximately 2x Na ICR.    It is interesting to note that the results of  Afridi et al (2018) [29] for Acute Childhood Leukaemia  (AL)  showed significantly higher concentration of Ca, whereas lower contents of Mg in the serum and whole blood of AL children in both genders, as compared to healthy subjects. The data aid physician/clinicians and other professional staffs to investigate the imbalance of minerals in biological samples of AL children.



The trough figure 4 for 60 Hz appears to be differently related.  It is most closely allied to the ICR of lithium or possibly the third harmonic of sodium ion.    Sodium channels are associated with            whereas Lithium Chloride Promotes Apoptosis in Human Leukaemia NB4 Cells by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta,   see   Li et al (2015) [30].  


According to Roger et al (2015) [31]  NaV channels can sustain biological roles that are not related to the generation of action potentials. Interestingly, it is likely that the abnormal expression of NaV in pathological tissues can reflect the re-expression of a foetal phenotype. This is especially true in epithelial cancer cells for which these channels have been identified and sodium currents recorded, while it was not the case for cells from the cognate normal tissues. In cancers, the functional activity of NaV appeared to be involved in regulating the proliferative, migrative, and invasive properties of cells.


The trough in Leukaemia incidence in the 50 Hz world controlled by magnesium seems to be considerably deeper and wider than that controlled  by lithium and sodium in the 60 Hz world and possibly accounts for the higher chance of Leukaemia incidence in the 60 Hz world.  


However, besides frequency one must also consider household exposure levels to AC magnetic field strengths in the two worlds.    Typical example of 60 Hz world is USA.   UK is a good example of 50 Hz world.   Mains voltage in USA is lower so currents in wiring will be double and result in higher magnetic field strengths.  This is borne out by experimental studies, see for example Swanson and Kaune (1999) [32].     Their best estimate of the geometric means of long-term average background fields in the United States is 60–70 nT and in the United Kingdom approximately 36–39 nT. In other countries, but they state there are insufficient studies to draw firm conclusions on average fields.   It is interesting to note that although people’s occasional exposure close the mains powered equipment and wiring may be of the order micro-Tesla ( milli- Gauss)  on average at more distance residential exposures and taking into account outside outings   the values are very comparable the earth’s D.C. field value.  


A combination of higher mains frequency fields in houses and workplaces in the 60 Hz world  together with no magnesium efflux stimulation   and less sodium efflux stimulation at the equivalent ASR/GMF trough could well be what pushes the overall Leukaemia risk factor up by almost two-fold in that ‘world’. 



Discussion NHL.


Referring to figure 5 and Table 4   as with Leukaemia zinc appears to be implicated in both main peaks.    This is a fascinating validation of the technique given that both are haematological cancers.     It is known that  ZIP10, a Zn transporter expressed in the early B-cell developmental process and that genetic ablation of Zip10 in early B-cell stages resulted in significant reductions in B-cell populations,   see Miyai et al (2013) [31].  The implication of ICR stimulation for chloride  and chromium as with several other cancers discussed above is also present.   Akosile (2016) [32] discusses the link between  haematological cancers and toxic metals in some detail.  


Only the 50 Hz case shows a trough in the NHL distribution which  appears to be most closely associated with twice the calcium ICR frequency.    Nor are second and minor peaks observed at either mains frequency.  Immanuel et al (2022) discuss the role of Ca2+ in neoplastic erythropoiesis,

 Then they  expand   to discuss the neoplastic impact of deregulated plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, ER Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ pumps and exchangers, as well as Ca2+ sensor and effector proteins across all types of hematologic neoplasms.


Discussion Prostate Cancer

Referring to figure 6 and Table 5   as with Leukaemia, NHL and Brain Cancer the main peak for Prostate Cancer at both 50Hz and 60Hz appears to be associated with approximately 2x zinc ICR and potentially also 2 X Fe ICR.       Zinc Homeostasis in prostate cancer is particularly complex and there are at least seven different ‘ZIP’ transporters involved.   Although from the above results some kind of interaction at harmonics of the zinc ICR frequency is involved it is not possible yet to speculate further as to how.     In this case chloride is also very relevant.    Hiraoka et al (2010)    [33]  found that  intracellular Cl- affects cell growth and cell cycle progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 cells.   Moreover Tian et al (2014) [34]  did mechanistic work and showed that  CLIC1 could regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK pathway which  offers a potential molecular target for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.   Zhang et al (2019) [35]   showed that chromium(VI) promotes cell migration through targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.   Qie et al (2022) [36] studied effects of low dose chromium and found


Assuming  Fe  ICR is also stimulated to efflux is also instructive.  Normal cells adjacent to prostate cancer cells are known to suffer iron deficiency perhaps this accentuates the process?


Both the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds display a second or lesser peak for prostate cancer abundance at low GMF.   Both appear to be associated with the second  harmonic of calcium ICR within 5% in the UK.    Very relevant perhaps is that  Silvestri et al ( 2019)  have shown that T-type Calcium Channels ( TTCC) are   overexpressed in advanced forms of Prostate Cancer (PCa) and correlate with a poorer prognosis. TTCC inhibition reduces cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that there may be possible value in the therapeutic targeting of TTCCs in advanced PCa.



Discussion Myeloma


Referring to figure 7 and Table 6   and contrasting with the other cancers considered here,  the main peak for Myeloma at both 50Hz and 60Hz appears to be associated with potassium and is extremely close to 3 times the potassium ICR frequency,  within 3%,  for the appropriate GMF at both frequencies.    Asparagine (symbol Asn or N ) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins which is also being stimulated simultaneously by Schuman resonance in this GMF range.    This may possibly serve to accentuate the problem associated with the power frequency fields. 


Deletions in the tumour suppressor gene KCNRG (potassium channel regulating gene) are ubiquitous in myeloma cell lines,  see Coon (2021).    It appears understandable then then that stimulation of the aberrant channels by ICR or related process (es) could worsen outcomes.  Counter to this, Wang et al ( 2014) [37]  have shown that the potassium channel blocker  RPMI-8226 can    inhibit cell proliferation  and is a phase-specific event.   It is known that intra-cellular potassium is high in Myeloma  and involved in proliferation. 


Coincidentally as with breast cancer the ICR frequency approximately twice the iron ICR frequency is also present in the peak, hence it is not possible to tell from this part of the  present study if one or more  possible  ion is being stimulated.  There is certainly a possibility that iron metabolism could be relevant and is discussed by VanderWall et al ( 2013) [38].  They refer to recent studies which have indicated that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anaemia in Myeloma patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Moreover,  they show malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron, and note that  therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement.


In both the major and minor troughs of GMF and power frequency related ASR distribution for Myeloma zinc appears to be implicated.     Trace element supplementation including zinc has been shown to boost outcomes for the disease under drug regimes, see   Jahankhani  et al (2023) [39].   Zinc oxide nanoparticles are also known to induce human multiple myeloma cell death, see Li et al ( 2020) [40].    The troughs are also with 6% of 3x Na ICR.    Sodium channel blockers have been used as earlier treatments for Myeloma but are often avoided as they are pro-arrhythmia.   


Discussion Colorectal Cancer


Zinc ICR ( X2 to within 1%)  appears to be stimulated at peak ASR.  It is interesting to examine  existing  cancer biology with respect to zinc.  Colon cancer is known to be associated with altered expression of zinc transporters.

Intriguingly Zinc  ICR ( X4 to within 2%) is also present in the ASR trough.


 Park et al (2003)  [43] has shown that the ERK pathway involves both positive and negative regulations of HT-29 colorectal cancer cell growth by extracellular zinc.    This   exciting observation further vindicates the present finding and firms the link between electromagnetic stimulation and know cancer biology.    


A minor 50 Hz world peak in ASR is absent for colorectal cancer but present in the 60 Hz world where sodium ICR ( *3) would seem relevant.   A search of the literature  immediately reveals that  Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel NaV1.5 Controls NHE−1−Dependent Invasive Properties in Colon Cancer Cells ( O Lopez-Charcas 2022  )[44]  and controls tumour progression, see Sui et al ( 2021).    




Discussion Lung Cancer


In both the 50 Hz and 60 Hz worlds a plethora of different ions would appear to be capable of ICR style interaction at the ASR/GMF peak.   Perhaps a common denominator is Zinc.   A second common dominator is arginine.   A third and closest is Fe ( ICR X2 to within 2%).    Zou et al (2019)[45] have shown arginine depletory methods to be beneficial in lung cancer.     It is unclear as to how the zinc mechanism could be operating but it is worth noting that many studies find that serum zinc levels are low in lung cancer.   Perhaps lung cancer cells have a huge thirst for zinc and perhaps the ICR stimulations drives it.      In order to apply the same model as for all the foregoing cancers it has been necessary to assume higher harmonics of zinc and arginine ICR are being stimulated in the 60 Hz world than the 50 Hz world.   Such assumptions have not been needed for other cancers where the GMF peaks themselves have essentially ‘tuned’ to the relevant background mains frequency.    It is known that intra-cellular iron is raised during lung cancer.


The closest ion being stimulated at the  ASR trough for lung appears to be chloride,  ( ICR X4 to within 4%).  Jia et al (2015) have shown that ‘Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer’.  

Lee et la have also shown that the  inhibition of chloride intracellular channel 1 enhances Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species signalling in A549 human lung cancer cells.  Jeong et al (2022) discuss ‘Anticancer effect of verteporfin on non-small cell lung cancer via downregulation of ANO1’


These references alone provides yet  another astounding and exciting  link with existing cancer biology and further validate the present author hypothesis. 



Discussion Ovarian Cancer


The 50 Hz  ASR peak is EXACTLY  3XK ICR.   Zhanping (2007)  discuss potassium VGCS in Ovarian Cancer cell proliferation.   


The peaks are also close to Mg ICR. Trapani and Wolf  [46] discuss role of magnesium and its channels in cancer, e.g TRPM.   The results above implicate magnesium ICR at both mains frequencies.  Moreover, Wang et al  (2014) [47] confirm     TRPM7 is required for ovarian cancer cell growth, migration and invasion.


The troughs for Ovarian cancer in both worlds’ would seem to be associated with the third harmonic of the sodium ICR frequency to within 4%.     Sodium channels have been shown to be over-expressed in  Ovarian cancer.     At first glance the result seems contrary to the expected if ICR is only capable of opening voltage gates  and driving influx.   As perhaps would seem to be the case for magnesium above.     However,   Panagopoulos et al  [48]  have   noted that due  to the nonlinear behaviour  of membranes  it is possible to create “windows” for the external EMF at certain intensity levels and cause movement in and out of calcium and potassium ions.  Presumably this feature is not impossible for other biological ions and membrane channels  and if so would explain   some of the other perplexing behaviours  noted for earlier cancers too.  




Conclusions  and Further Work

A successful study of several cancers has been made using nothing other than Age Standardized Incidence data and Earth Geomagnetic field values.   Generally speaking and with the exception of Brain Cancer and NHL it has been shown to more dangerous to live in the ‘60 Hz’ world which includes  USA, Canada, Brazil, Saudi Arabia and parts of Japan rather than the ‘50 Hz’ world which includes all the other countries of the world.  


All the findings of the study support the notion of cancer as a channelopathy, and they also mostly  support modern contemporary ideas in cancer biology and in some cases even inform the same.


It is not possible to say with any certainty whether the power frequencies at 50 Hz and 60 Hz are simply acting a cancer promoter or if they are also in any way initiators.     Many cancers occur because of genetic pre-disposition [49]   but some occur because of  exposure to chemical carcinogens   [50] or radiation [51]    which may cause genetic aberration and weakening of or deletions in tumour  suppressor genes.   There is even a growing school of thought that epigenetics may change levels of DNA methylation and increase susceptibly to cancer accordingly [52].       From the point of view of  the ICR/IPR hypotheses one can imagine that more ions  are  either  directed through pores or blocked at appropriate frequencies  wherein aberrant channels pre-exist.  In other words, we have defined electromagnetic channel agonists and antagonists .   In this way the EMF is acting merely as a promoter rather than an initiator. 




But could EMF actually initiate cancer rather than just promote it?   The theory of ,     Panagopoulos  et al  [53]  suggests that very low electric fields  may increase random ion oscillations and currents to the point of oxidative stress with increased ROS.   Increased ROS is known to bring about, in some cases, genetic change so  under these conditions EMF could  also be considered a cancer initiator.        Given the very low cancer rates in the Amish who do not use electricity and the high rates of certain cancers amongst workers in the electricity industry this latter notion remains a distinct possibility.  


In either of the above cases, i.e. with LF EMF acting as  promoter or initiator, the study opens up novel and exciting possibilities for new and drug free types of cancer treatments.     Clearly, we cannot all live in world devoid of electricity.    However, the study has shown that there are optimum GMF values   wherein the probability of specific cancers is minimised     irrespective of the presence of 50Hz or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields.          This may be particularly important for persons with a genetic pre-disposition towards certain kinds of cancer.    The simplest treatment which comes to mind is for such persons to provide living and/or working enclosures/environments with controlled  or artificial GMFS.       An alternative treatment which also comes to mind to bring about equivalent effects would be achieved by sticking with the local background GMF and effectively ‘tuning’ to the minimum probability  in the ASR curve for a specific cancer by providing an ‘overwhelming’  AC field matching the required ion(s) at a position more proximal  to the patient than  that/those from the background electricity supply.    




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