2013 a better year for bees but far fewer houseflies; a brief explanation. By Dr Chris Barnes August 2013, Bangor Scientific and Educational Consultants, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Barnes' Homepage Link http://drchrisbarnes.co.uk
Reasons for bee colony collapse are briefly reviewed. It is pointed out that bees and larger insects such as the butterfly seem to be increasing in numbers in the UK during the summer of 2013. Under warm weather conditions and with the use of fewer pesticides, the housefly population also ought to be on the increase but it is not. A new hypothesis involving insects as dielectric resonators is advanced to explain the observable differences. Flies are smaller than bees and therefore resonate and absorb maximum microwave energy at a higher frequency than the former. Their decline seems to coincide with the use of more 2100 MHz for 3G mobile telephony and data communications. Simultaneously as less 900MHz is being employed honey bee populations, with the attendant larger body of this insect, ought logically to recover. Here in North Wales in the UK the predicted trend is being observed. Insect decline may have an effect on house sparrow populations previously ascribed by others as directly rather than indirectly due to RF radiation. Finally, a prediction is made that in years to come as 4G is rolled out and expected to use frequency of 2,600 MHz and the old UHF TV frequencies around 600-700 MHz further changes may be seen. The author's prediction is that, given continues restrictions on pesticides, the honey bee population will continue to recover as will that of larger flies. Smaller flies will be all but eliminated and there could be a potential problem for large bumble bees and butterflies if the 600 MHz frequency spectrum becomes developed extensively for mobile telephony.
The EU has this year placed a two year ban on three killer pesticides. This EU-wide decision is the world’s first region wide ban on bee-killer pesticides. It will restrict the use of three neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiametoxam) for seed treatment, soil application (granules) and spray treatment on plants and cereals attractive to bees.
The present author has previously shown that bee colonies may be collapsing for an additional reason, that of exposure to mobile phone telephony signals.
A third possible reason why in Britain, in particular, we have had fewer bees in our gardens in recent years has undoubtedly been the spate of poor and wet summers.
Bees doing better houseflies dying out?
At least in the UK 2013 has to date seen a reversal of fortunes for bees and other larger flying insects such as butterflies and moths. The hypothesis presented here is that they are doing better for three very distinct reasons. Firstly, there is already less use of the three destructive pesticides referred to above. Secondly, we have had a much warmer summer particularity the month of July. Finally, there is less use of 900 MHz TDMA for mobile telephony and more use of 3G frequencies around 2 GHz with CDMA.
The present author has previously explained how a honey bee's body forms a dielectric resonator at about 900MHz and how the pulse repetition frequencies of TDMA might interfere with bee signalling and navigation (ref).
So why then do houseflies appear to be dying out. Surely the lack of pesticides and the warmer weather ought to benefit these insects as well.
It is known that RF radiation at both 900 MHz ( ref ) and 10 GHz (ref) interferes with a housefly's reproductive cycle. In particular in the 900 MHz study it was shown that voice modulated emissions have a far greater effect than a steady carrier wave on this reproductive cycle.
It is proposed here that the switch to 3G communications might make matters even worse for flies based on their body size. Typically honey bees are about 17 mm in body size and have been shown to resonate close to 900 MHz. Flies are 5-7 mm in length. Thus a fly of 6.9mm in length by scaling and assumption of similar dielectric properties will act as a dielectric resonator at 2170 MHz which is exactly a frequency in use by 3G. Moreover 3G uses CDMA which produces broad a.m. like modulation bursts both expected to drastically impede housefly reproductive activity. It is proposed that this simple hypothesis elegantly explains what is being observed. Most of our homes, offices and public buildings are no also flooded with WIFI signals on 2450 MHz or thereabouts and these too are expected by the present author to be contributing to the observed decline.
Some parties have also observed declines in house sparrow populations in urban environments and in the vicinity of mobile telephony installations, suggesting perhaps that the RF radiation has a direct effect upon the birds. Another equally valid reason for this decline, hitherto not cited, is that if there are less insects there will be less grubs for the birds to forage. So maybe the house sparrow decline is an indirect effect rather than a direct one?
A simple hypothesis based on insects as dielectric resonators has been advanced to explain the decline of housefly populations in otherwise favourable conditions. The same hypothesis also explains why bees and larger insects are doing somewhat better as less lower ( 900 MHz) frequencies are presently being used for mobile telephony.
In years to come as 4G is rolled out and expected to use frequency of 2,600 MHz and the old UHF TV frequencies around 600-700 MHz further changes may be seen. The author's prediction is that, given continues restrictions on pesticides, the honey bee population will continue to recover as will that of larger flies. Smaller flies will be all but eliminated and there could be a potential problem for large bumble bees and butterflies if the 600 MHz frequency spectrum becomes developed extensively for mobile telephony.